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Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)

Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a successor of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and its a cryptographic protocol used for establishing an encrypted link between a Server and a Client over a public network. They use X.509 certificates and hence asymmetric cryptography to authenticate the certificate holder to its clients, and to negotiate a symmetric session key. This session key is used to encrypt the data communication between client and server. This allows message confidentiality and authenticity. TLS is widely used in applications like:- i.   Email ii.  Web Broswing iii. VoIP Because of the use of X.509 certificates,  CAs and PKI infrastructure are necessary to verify the certificates and for the establishment of chain-of trust. TLS is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standards track protocol, first defined in 1999 and updated in RFC 5246 (August 2008) and RFC 6176 (March 2011). It is based on the earlier SSL specifications (1994, 1995, 1996) developed by Netscap

IPv6 DNS Measurement Stats

NIC IPv6 DNS Measurement Measuring who all are querying for or domain, what they are querying for and from where they are querying. NIC had tested its IPv6 connectivity with internet peers on June 8, 2011 (World IPv6 day) and next year on World IPv6 Launch Day (June 6, 2012), we had launched our IPv6 DNS Server (having address 2405:8A00:1000::2) along with some websites.  Our IPv6 DNS Servers are live from day one onwards and today we are receiving roughly 54000 queries per hour over IPv6 for various and domains. In this paper, we are showing the following statistics:-        1. Who all are querying us     2. What they are querying for     3.    From which part of world we are getting the hits For taking out the bellow stats, we analyzed 7, 69, 00,000 (roughly 7.7 crore) IPv6 queries.     AS wise Query Statistics Autonomous System number (ASn) wise query stat gives us the unexpected results. Although we were pred

Internationalized Domain Name -- URL in any Language

From whichever part of the world you belong, no matter what is your mother tongue, if you are reading this post, this means you understands English. Nearly half of the world doesn't know English But still accessing Internet was not very much friendly  for those non-English speaking community to an extent due to the limitation of only having ASCII characters in domain names until few years back. In simple term, before 2011 domains was restricted to be in English language only. In 2011, ICANN approved addition of  IDN gTLDs (Internationalized Domain Name generic Top-Level Domain)in the root zone. And this gives the luxury to the internet community to have a domain url in any language. ICANN has delegated IDN in seven languages to NIXI. Details of those are as follows: Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) Language .भारत .Bharat in Devanagari .ভারত .Bharat in Bangla .భారత్ .Bharat in Telugu .ભારત .Bharat in Gujarati . بھارت .Bharat in Urdu .இந்தியா .Bharat in Tamil .ਭਾਰ