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Internationalized Domain Name -- URL in any Language

From whichever part of the world you belong, no matter what is your mother tongue, if you are reading this post, this means you understands English. Nearly half of the world doesn't know English But still accessing Internet was not very much friendly  for those non-English speaking community to an extent due to the limitation of only having ASCII characters in domain names until few years back. In simple term, before 2011 domains was restricted to be in English language only. In 2011, ICANN approved addition of  IDN gTLDs (Internationalized Domain Name generic Top-Level Domain)in the root zone. And this gives the luxury to the internet community to have a domain url in any language. ICANN has delegated IDN in seven languages to NIXI. Details of those are as follows: Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) Language .भारत .Bharat in Devanagari .ভারত .Bharat in Bangla .భారత్ .Bharat in Telugu .ભારત .Bharat in Gujarati . بھارت .Bharat in Urdu .இந்தியா .Bharat in Tamil .ਭਾਰ

Extension Mechanisms for DNS (EDNS0)

DNS Background The Domain Name System Protocol was first designed in 1980s and after that various features has been added while maintaining the compatibility with earlier versions of the protocol. DNS Packet was restricted to UDP 512 bytes in the early releases while keeping in mind the minimum MTU size is of 576 bytes in IPv4. This has been done to check the issues of packet drops, fragmentation and others. This packet size limit of 512 bytes also led to limit the number of root servers to 13 (A to M). In 1999, Paul Vixie proposed extending DNS to allow new flags and Response Codes, and to provide support for longer responses which should also be backward compatible with previous implementation. Mechanism Due to limitation of space in DNS header, no new flags can be added in it. EDNS add information to DNS message in the form of pseudo-RRs included in the ‘additional data’ section of DNS message. This section exist both in Request and Response. The pseudo-RR introduc

PGP and S/MIME Protocol

Both PGP and S/MIME protocols are used for authentication and privacy of messages over internet. S/MIME protocol refers to Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions which has been incorporated in the various main exchange software, incl. Outlook, Thunderbird & others And also incorporated in all major browsers (chrome, Mozilla, IE and others). S/MIME is based on IETF standards and defined in RFC 5751.   RFC 5751 defined S/MIME as "S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) provides a consistent way to send and receive secure MIME data. Based on the popular Internet MIME standard, S/MIME provides the following cryptographic security services for electronic messaging applications: authentication, message integrity and non-repudiation of origin (using digital signatures), and data confidentiality (using encryption). As a supplementary service, S/MIME provides for message compression." PGP known as Pretty Good Privacy, is a data encryption and decryp