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Why we have IPv6 after IPv4..... Where is IPv5 ?

IP or Internet Protocol, is the primary network protocol used on the Internet, introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974. IP version 0 to 3 was introduced and used between 1974 and 1979. After changes and refinements in initial IP protocol, version 4 was introduced in 1981, commonly known as IPv4, described in RFC 791 , which become the backbone of Whole Internet in no time. (IPv4 is know as v4 because it is the fourth version of IP not because it has 4 octets, which is a common myth). TCP/IP Protocol was designed as a part of project ARPANET, whose aim was to interconnect various universities and research institutes of USA. But with the dot com boom, TCP/IP grows like anything and its become a victim of its own success. In Early 90's, expert realized that we will exhaust the whole IPv4 number very soon and there is a need for a new protocol, which should be enough in size to serve the internet community for at least 30-40 years. This lead to new version of Internet Protoco

IPv6 Address Allocation BCP

Best Current Practices in for IPv6 Address Allocation This Best Practices document aims to provide IPv6 Address allocation guidelines that a network operator can follow while planning the IPv6  sub-netting  for its network (based on the issues faced and learning’s from IPv6 implementation in NKN and NIC network). Best Current Practice: 1. Sub-netting         IPv6 addresses generally written in Hex format. Each Hex number represents 4 bit, commonly known as nibble. A nibble boundary is a network mask that aligns on a 4-bit boundary. Sub-netting the v6 address at nibble boundary improves efficiency and make it easier to understand for humans* (Machine will anyway read it binary format  J ). Example of Nibble and non-Nibble Boundaries Sub-netting From the above example, we can clearly see that Sub-netting at the Nibble boundaries is easier to manage and do the sub-netting. * Condition may arise where you may have to

Domain Information Groper (DIG) -- DNS Query Tool

DIG is a command-line tool for querying DNS Name Server (similar to nslookup utility available in Windows and host utility). dig utility can be used for querying DNS about the host address (both A and AAAA), name server(NS), mail exchange(MX), Pointer Record(PTR), SOA (Start Of Authority) and others. DIG is a part of BIND software package ( BIND package is developed and managed by Internet Systems Consortium ISC). Usage Example :- 1. Ask for a host address :- dig 2. Ask from a specific server :- dig @ ; <<>> DiG 9.8.5-P2 <<>> @ ;; global options: +cmd ;; Got answer: ;; ->>HEADER<<- opcode: QUERY, status: NOERROR, id: 13527 ;; flags: qr rd ra; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 1, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 0 ;; QUESTION SECTION: ; IN A ;; ANSWER SECTION: 14103 IN A ;; Query time: 171 msec ;; SERVER: (8.8.8